Oscar E. Berninghaus

Oscar Berninghaus, The Snow Covered Trail

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A founding member of the famed Taos Society of Artists, Oscar Edmund Berninghaus captured the nomadic spirit of the American Southwest through the depiction of Native American culture, pioneer ambition, and expansive landscapes. For many years, Berninghaus remained tied between the primary inspiration for his artistic production, the Taos Pueblo tribe of New Mexico, and his native St. Louis, the serendipitous “Gateway to the West.” Berninghaus, born in 1874, showed an early talent for art and discovered its commercial potential in his youth by sketching on-site at local events and selling the drawings to newspapers. At age sixteen he began an apprenticeship at the Woodward and Tiernan Printing Company where he learned technical skills in lithography and engraving. He also attended night classes at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts and Washington University.

Berninghaus first visited Taos in 1899 while working as a commercial artist for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, traveling atop a chair secured to the baggage car by railroad workers in order to get the best views. En route from Alamosa to Santa Fe, he was charmed by a week’s stay in Taos and further convinced of its virtue by painter Bert Geer Phillips, who aspired to bring artists into the area. In the year following this trip, the twenty-five year old Berninghaus held his first solo exhibition at the Frank D. Healy Galleries of St. Louis, where the show of watercolors, oils, sketches, and drawings documented his time in Taos. That same year Berninghaus celebrated his marriage to Emelia Miller. He continued to work as a freelance commercial artist and taught drawing in St. Louis, but took regular sketching and painting trips to Taos. Following his wife’s death in 1913, Berninghaus and his two children continued to travel between the two environments as the school calendar allowed, and son Charles eventually became a painter of the Southwest himself. Berninghaus supported his family with steady patronage from the Anheuser-Busch Brewery, who commissioned Western-themed works for their advertisements. In 1914 the company published the promotional booklet Epoch Marking Events of American History: A Series of Historical Pictures, painted by O. E. Berninghaus. The Busch family acquired a number of his paintings, and in the 1970s donated roughly fifty works to the St. Louis Art Museum.

In 1912, the same year New Mexico reached statehood, Berninghaus began to align himself with fellow artists Ernest Blumenschein, W. Herbert Dunton, E. Irving Couse, Joseph Henry Sharp, and Bert G. Phillips. Including Berninghaus, these six artists formed the charter members of the Taos Society of Artists in 1915, creating a sales cooperative designed to promote their touring group exhibitions in the absence of local opportunities. Within months of the society’s inception over one hundred artists had made the pilgrimage to Taos. The first such group of note in the American West, the Taos artists’ colony was highly praised and many of its members, including Berninghaus, joined the National Academy of Design. Berninghaus was additionally a recipient of the National Academy’s Ranger Fund Prize in 1925 and the Altman prize in 1926. His success was a unique achievement among the group, given his less extensive and wholly American training in contrast to his peers’ prestigious European salon educations. Berninghaus was also set apart by the extent of his access to the Taos Indian community, which enabled him to observe the kivas of the Pueblo, various dances and rituals, and the nuances of day-to-day life. During a period of expanding commercialization his paintings gave a quiet and intimate reflection of the preservation of tradition, but also made allusions to newer ambitions and the impact of modernization. Nomadic life remained a common theme in the works, ranging between serene horse-bound figures and lively stagecoach travels, all framed by their vast surroundings. Majestic in composition and daring in color, his paintings above all convey the lyrical beauty of the environment.

In 1925 Berninghaus made a permanent move to the old adobe house near Taos he had purchased six years prior.  He remarried in 1932 to Winifred Shuler, a courier guide who worked in car tours of the Southwest. In the 1930s the artist’s talent was put to use in public spaces, producing the mural Border Gateways for the Fort Scott, Kansas, post office, and panels in the Phoenix, Arizona, post office and courthouse.  Berninghaus continued to paint into his advanced age using the subject matter that had enthralled him for decades, but now relied on years of accumulated images rather than in-studio models. This later process was befitting of an artist who maintained, “The Painter must first see his picture as paint-as color-as form-and not as a landscape or a figure. He must see with his inner eye then paint with feeling, not with seeing.” 1 Three days after suffering a heart attack, Berninghaus died in Taos at the age of seventy-seven on April 27, 1952. As one who firmly believed the art of Taos to be a defining moment in the conception of American art, the artist’s own works are potent visions of the American Southwest landscape and the lives of its inhabitants.
Written and compiled by Zenobia Grant Wingate

1Peggy Samuels, Harold Samuels, Joan Samuels, and Daniel Fabian. Techniques of the Artists of the American West. Secaucus, NJ: The Wellfleet Press, 1990. 15.

Oscar Berninghaus, Snow

1874 Born Oscar Edmund Berninghaus on October 2 in St. Louis, Missouri
1890 Works in St. Louis printing house, learning lithography and engraving; attends night classes at St. Louis School of Fine Arts
1898 Illustrations for McClure’s magazine
1899 First major commission from Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, produces illustration for travel literature on New Mexico and Colorado. Encounters Bert Geet Philips and visits Taos
1900 First solo exhibition at the Frank D. Healy Galleries in St. Louis of works from Taos. Marries Emelia Miller, resulting in two children
1913 Wife Emelia dies
1914 Publication of promotional booklet Epoch Marking Events of American History: A Series of Historical Pictures, painted by O. E. Berninghaus by Anheuser-Busch Brewery
1915 Founding member of Taos Society of Artists along with Joseph Sharp, Bert Philips, Ernest Blumenschein, Irving Couse and Herbert Dunton
1916 Begins exhibiting annually with the National Academy of Design
1919 Buys old adobe house near Taos with income from exhibitions in New York and Chicago
1925 Permanently moves to Taos
1926 Elected Associate member of the National Academy of Design
1932 Marries Winifred Shuler
1937 Paints mural Border Gateways for the Fort Scott, Kansas, post office
1938 Completes three panels for the Phoenix, Arizona, post office and courthouse
1952 Dies April 27 in Taos

1907 Dolph prize, St. Louis
1913 Chicago Fine Arts Building prize (shared)
1915 Mary Elizabeth Bascom prize, St. Louis Artists Guild
1915 & 1917 St. Louis Artists Guild
1917 Bettie Bofinger Brown prize
1925 Ranger Fund Prize, National Academy of Design
1926 Altman prize, National Academy of Design

Art Institute of Chicago
City Art Museum of St. Louis
1913 Society of Western Artists
1915, 1917-1924, 1926 St. Louis Artists Guild
1916-1947 National Academy of Design
1914-1927 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
1923-1939 Corcoran Gallery
1939 Golden Gate Exhibition, San Francisco
World’s Fair, New York

Taos Society of Artists, founding member
Taos Art Association
St. Louis Artists Guild
St. Louis 2x4 Club
National Academy of Design, associate member
Salmagundi Club
Society of Western Artists
Painters Group of the West
Deuce Club

Works by the artist may be found at the the Art Institute of Chicago, Wichita Art Museum, Smithsonian American Art Museum, and the Taos Art Museum.

Mary Carroll Nelson. “Oscar E. Berninghaus: Modesty and Expertise.” In The Legendary Artists of Taos. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1980.

Masterworks of the Taos Founders. The Museum of Art of the American West and the Gerald Peters Collection. Santa Fe, NM: The Peters Corporation, 1984.

Peggy Samuels, Harold Samuels, Joan Samuels, Daniel Fabian. Techniques of the Artists of the American West. Secaucus, NJ: The Wellfleet Press, 1990.

David Bernard Dearinger and Avis Berman. “Oscar Edmund Berninghaus.” Painting and Sculpture in the Collection of the National Academy of Design. National Academy of Design (U.S.), 2000. 136.

“Oscar Edmund Bernighaus.” AskART.

“Painters of Grand Canyon.” AskART.

“Taos Pre 1940.” AskART.

“Taos and Santa Fe Painters: Oscar Edmund Berninghaus (1874-1952).”

Peter Hastings Falk, Editor-in-Chief. Who was Who in American Art 1564-1975: 400 Years of Artists in America, Vol. 1. Madison, CT: Sound View Press, 1999. 

Oscar Edmund Berninghaus and Anheuser-Busch, Inc. Epoch Marking Events of American History: A Series of Historical Pictures, painted by O.E. Berninghaus. St. Louis: Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association, 1914. 

R.R. Bowker. American Art Directory, Volume 14. American Federation of Arts, 1918. 164. http://books.google.com/books?id=1yYMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA164#v=onepage&q&f=false

Marta Weigle. “Exposition and Mediation: Mary Colter, Erna Fergusson, and the Santa Fe/Harvey Popularization of the Native Southwest, 1902-1940.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1992), 116-150.